Building on this basis, Cafu also implements some complementing features that further improve the client experience: Automatic interpolation is available so that also the movement, colors and other attributes of "non-player" entities get smoothly updated with the client framerate, even if they actually receive updates over the network with the much lower server framerate. And there is a broad spectrum of client effects that create a great visual experience that is entirely independent from the server: model animations are played, particles effects rendered, and so on. I've written more about client effects in my news post Server state and client effects in online games.
It quickly turned out that reconciliation, a sub-feature of client prediction that "smoothly" fixes mismatches of the prediction results against the server, was still missing and that riding lifts would become a perfect experience as a side effect of adding the more general reconciliation (sub-)feature.
Other minor issues with the old code included that our interpolation feature (and the temporary world state related to it) must not accidentally interfere with the client prediction, and that while our own local human player is fully covered by prediction, other (3rd person) human player entities should be covered by interpolation instead.
At that opportunity, but independent from the above, I wanted to achieve a better (generic, powerful and simple) means for implementing "pure" client effects, so that game and map designers could easily add features like these (some long existing, some still missing):
- 1st person (the local human player):
- head swaying (in state
FrozenSpectator, currently still implemented in
- head bopping when walking / running,
- smooth stepping on staircases.
- head swaying (in state
- 3rd person (monsters, other human players, game objects, etc.):
- properly advanced model animations,
- light sources that pulsate, swing, move, ...
- items that rotate, bop, circle, ...
In summary, these are the existing and new features that I wanted to cover:
- server updates (authoritative frame updates as received over the network from the server),
- prediction (handles the instant processing of input for the local human player), with sub-features:
- interpolation (updates monsters, 3rd person players and other game objects smoothly with the client's framerate),
- client effects (generic server-independent effects as outlined above).
I would also like to summarize the main technical ideas behind the new client's code structure, but considering the length of this post, I'll rather postpone them to a future news post, coming soon.